Gender Summit 9 (Brussels, 8-9 Nov 2016)

I’ve spent the last two days in Brussels attending (along with my UoA Physics colleague Fred) my first Gender Summit, a global conference series focused on women in STEM*, and intersections between research, policy, funding, etc… The interconnections with the political realm were evidenced by the first half day being at the European Parliament, hosted by the Women’s Rights and Gender Equality Committee (FEMM). The Summit (Day 2) was a great environment to be in for those of us reeling in shock and fear after the US election results – let’s just say Day 2 was a more somber affair than Day 1! The GS website has heaps of reports and resources, so check it out. And if you fancy, you can explore the twitter feed of the conference by searching #GS9EU.
*there was some talk of sex/gender beyond a binary, but the focus by and large was on women, and evidence/interventions aimed at women and girls.

The theme of this summit, GS9, was on gender-based research, innovation and development for sustainable economies and societal well-being. The two days were filled with inspiring speakers sharing experiences, challenges, resources and much much more. I tweeted a lot during the conference, but here I’ll try and summarise some key reflections, resources and ideas. There are far far too many links and organisations to share them all, but a few I’ll list, in no particular order, before I get onto some reflections and meta-themes:

A key theme was that we cannot simply tweak around the edges, and we cannot take small steps. We must think big and be bold in both our vision and our actions. Under this overall message, three strong patterns struck me, which I’ll focus on: 1) who is the problem and what do we ‘fix’?; 2) metaphors and language matter; and 3) there need to be consequences if we’re to get real change.

1) Where do we locate the problem?

A key message across many talks was that ‘women’ are not and should not be seen as the problem, and that by focusing on changing women, we implicitly send the message that women need to learn to be more like men to succeed. Instead, we need to focus on the structures, the context, to make women’s participation more appealing and success more likely. This is of course much harder – I wonder if the appeal of newly oh so popular efforts like implicit bias training is that they fit so easily within existing structures and contexts. That they don’t really challenge structures, and they fit comfortably within what we already do. They also do not challenge deeply entrenched ideas of meritocracy and ‘level playing fields’, which (as problematic as these ideas are, in reality vs in rhetoric) initiatives like ‘positive discrimination’ (which some advocated for strongly – more below) and tagged ‘women only’ posts and opportunities challenge. One delegate critiqued implicit bias tests as “very soft” and that we treat them as this magical training that will result in gender equality… but this obscures the fact that some people will be opposed to it (indeed, the US election result is evidence of the ongoing potency of prejudice)!

The suggestion was that we need to reflect more on our own constructs, that we need also to be aware to the ongoing reiteration of gender difference and gender inequality even in our own practice – which I heartily agree with; and this applies specifically around norms, and a lack of intersectional thinking. Which brings me to the next point…

2) Language and metaphors matter

One of the questions which got the loudest applause was a challenge to the ‘leaky pipeline’ – an image brought up again and again – and to say the implications of this image is that women are drips, among other things… And while some people argue (and I can understand why) that we shouldn’t really care about ‘what the problem is called’ – leaky pipeline or freaky pipeline as another presenter suggested) – as a critical social scientist, I do fundamentally believe that language produces reality, and that the metaphors and language we use has consequences. A metaphor suggested to replace it (and the glass ceiling) was the glass obstacle course. I like it. It works for me, the sense that what we face is both knowable (that it is an obstacle course) but also impossible fully to know (invisible) and hard to navigate – many are set up to fail obstacle courses.

This resonates with my wider concerns around how an emphasis on ‘well-being’ obscures the fact that our academic working conditions are often impossible, impossibly stressful, impossibly demanding. If we focus on individualised well-being initiatives (instead of changing the system with its impossible demands), responsibility is located within the individual who fails to achieve well-being, who fails to ‘manage’ their own stress. They are at fault. They are the failure. This idea echoed through many presentations which argued that we need to change the model of the successful scientist, someone who works 80-hour weeks to achieve the impossible (for most) goal. The message was we should see this model is the problem, not women who ‘fail’ to achieve on this model. The same critique was also levelled at various metrics and measures of “excellence” – the whole implicit construct of ‘the excellent scientist’ needs to be re-thought, it was argued. This remains a challenge!

Of course, we have policy in place to ensure all these things, and we have rhetoric that suggests that things like “time to care” are taken into account. But the gap between official policy, and the implicit messages that get sent (and, often, what counts) are often wide and deep – a Pacific Trench if you will, rather than a small creek… For instance, as an academic I know that ‘work life balance’ is important, that my performance will be assessed in a ‘relative’ way, and that it’s not just research outputs and funding that count. But other messages constantly contradict this ‘truth’ – and it’s very very hard to remove yourself from believing in the ongoing truth of the (old) model that values the traditional model of excellence, noted above. How practice (and representation) work together to change this isn’t fully clear, but this links to the third theme, on the need for consequences…

Another final point about language relates to questions around what we argue for – equity or equality or inclusivity or diversity, etc… each of these terms were used by various people; I tweeted across a spectrum, mostly reflecting the use-of-the-moment. But they aren’t necessarily the same, and they do evoke different things (with, again, different accompanying metaphors) and thus, perhaps, both intended and unintended consequences. The UoA has adopted language, policy and practice guided by equity, and my language reflected this, but equality language (focused on endpoints) was far more common than I had anticipated.

3) There need to be consequences for real change to happen (and quickly)

This could be subtitled good intentions are not enough. It links to both previous themes. South Africa’s Science and Technology Minister Naledi Pandor emphasised (in the EU Parliament session) that experience in SA has taught them that “radical intervention and political action are imperative if we are to achieve change in gender inclusivity in science”. She highlighted the positive effect that positive discrimination towards women had had in getting women awarded the prestigious SA Research Chairs. Another example given by Dr Mario Pinto was of Canadian Research Chairs – that institutions would need to have gender equity plans in place. But he emphasised that there need to be consequences if plans are not adhered to.

Consequences. Amongst this general theme, there was some discussion of initiatives which either combined a ‘carrot and stick’ approach, or adopted more of a clear ‘stick’ approach. I’ll report on one example: the practice that Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) – a major research funder – has adopted. With 7 universities in Ireland, their case could be considered somewhat akin to ours in NZ. Ireland has taken on Athena Swan, and SFI has adopted a policy whereby institutes must have bronze accreditation by 2019 to receive funding, and silver accreditation by 2023. Now this approach and Athena Swan have not been without criticism, but it provides an example whereby real change has been assumed to rely on consequences – in this case, a will ‘hit them in the pocket’ if they don’t meet some (often claimed as fairly low) baseline.

A fourth thing which struck me, which wasn’t a theme across the conference so much as a reaction from me, was a sense of overwhelming frustration, that went along with all the inspiration and optimism for positive change. We know so much about what the problems are, and even on possible ways to resolve them – why are we wasting time and energy and resources doing more and more research into ‘the issue’ and not instead focusing on intervention for change. Does a push for ‘information and evidence’ actually really effectively function as a way to stymie change? I’m starting to think so. Why not be bold, and jump in with radical intervention, something akin to Harvard’s recently ‘big’ response to the sexism and misogyny of its male soccer team’s actions, by cancelling the rest of their season. But in this, we need to remember that context matters – things don’t work everywhere, and you need to adapt things to your own context. But that’s not to say you need to start over…

That’s enough from me. The conference was great, and it is clear that an increasing number of funding agencies and other bodies around the world have decided that increasing the participation of women in STEM is an absolute priority. I really look forward to hearing more, especially from more Asia-Pacific countries, at the next one, in Japan next year.

Promoting gender equity in science/STEMM: A reflection on Prof Jenny Martin’s visit

It was a treat last week to have biologist Professor Jenny Martin visiting us from Australia, where she is the director of the Eskitis Institute at Griffith University. She blogs and tweets about things science-related, including women in science. Jenny has been passionate and committed to promoting the participation of girls and women in STEMM in Australia, including a key role in getting Australia’s SAGE initiative set up. It was this focus of her work that she spent time discussion in two presentation. The first, on Gender Equity – recognising and removing bias from the equation, was to the equity community at the UoA. The second, enticingly (or provocatively, depending on your view) titled Science is Male, was a standing-room-only seminar in the School of Biological Sciences. (Jenny has kindly agreed to provide  links to her slides; I’ll revise this blog when they’re up).

Both presentations balanced humour with the seriousness, and emphasised the practical – what can I do, what can you do, what can different groups of people do – to increase not only early participation, but retention of women in science, and in contexts where they are valued, and have the opportunity to flourish. My experience of watching presentations like this (in my equity role I have seen more than one) is to hope to glean new ideas for moving forward in what we do to promote Women in Science at the University of Auckland. Jenny’s talks both validated much of what we’ve been working on, with our Platform for Gender Equity and other things, and offered new insiprations and suggestions.

Jenny emphasised the need for leadership from above to really make a difference – alongside bottom-up/’on the ground’ type actions. Yes! Please.

She also emphasised the need to collect the data – so, for instance, what is the case in relation to a gender pay gap? Jenny highlighted a few cases of North American universities where a gender pay gap had been explored, identified, and addressed through some form of compensation. Some places have opted for a one-off payment; UBC took a slightly different tack, adjusting women’s salaries across the board by 2%, when analysis identified a gap that could not be explained by other factors . As New Zealand is far from immune from gender pay inequities, I would like the UoA to undertake a similar analysis, and to take action should a gendered pay gap be identified. So measurement and collecting data is important (we are researchers, after all). Not least because what we measure determines at least in part what we see and what we can know…

Another topic discussed more widely – and where we’ve seen some shifts globally, but where a lot of work is still needed – has been gender inclusivity at conferences – on organising committies, and on speaker panels, plenaries, keynotes, and other invited speakers. Senior men have been encouraged to take a pledge (this isn’t the only one!) not to accept invitations where, in the most basic version, women are not present as participants. Jenny has offered 10 simple rules for achieving gender balance in conference speakers. This is something we’re working on…

There was much much more – which can be found in her slides (when I get them up), including data around the bias against women found in student surveys (which was news again this week, with a new Dutch study providing new robust evidence around this).

Jenny acknowledged that gender is not binary – our focus on ‘women in science’ can sometimes obscure that. She also acknowledge the intersections of many different axes of privilege/marginalisation, which are vital to acknowledge and hold as real, at the same time as we talk about broad brush categories. The idea of our indenties and experiences offering differential privilege and marginalisation are captured in trainings like the power shuffle – they can be powerful and revealing tools.

Amidst this, I appreciated Jenny’s use of humour. These topics are of course very serious, but laughter is also vital amidst it all.



Excellence vs inclusivity and participation?

I’m just back from a month in the UK, where there seems to be much doom-and-gloom about the post-Brexit impact on higher education and universities (I’m not suggesting this is unfounded; all analysis I’ve read suggest this worry is well-founded). This morning, I read this piece in the Guardian about the push for ‘excellence’ and (related) exclusivity in (some) universities in the UK, and how this potentially works against developing more inclusive and diverse student bodies. Then I read this piece, again in the Guardian, about the scrapping of maintenance grants for the poorest of students, which indicates another way in which participation from certain marginalised groups will likely be reduced. They are just two points of a complex discussion of the role of the university, and the place (and obligations?) of universities in contemporary (western) societies – including the tensions between ‘private benefit’ and ‘public good‘ type arguments and perceptions.

Related to this question of who makes it in to our classrooms (and what we do to get them there, make them feel welcome, keep them there, and support them to flourish), one of my favourite presentations at the British Psych Society’s Psychology of Women Section conference was from Leeds Beckett academic Glen Jankowski, talking about diversity and inclusivity projects around race/ethnicity, in both the psychology classroom, and the university more generally. He discussed various projects and practices, linking to great resources like Leeds University’s anti-racism toolkit.

Te Whare Pora – conference reflections

I’m just back from attending Te Whare Pora in Wanaka – a two-day convention towards gender equality. The convention asked “what would our world be tomorrow if gender equality were realised today”? We didn’t get any actual answers – and we didn’t resolve gender inequality problems – but the breadth and depth of participant perspectives and experiences gave a rich, contextualised, historicised view of the challenges. Academics were well-represented, from Otago historian Barbara Brookes talking about the history of women in New Zealand, Massey leadership academic and former Black Fern captain Farah Palmer talking about why gender equality matters in sport, to AUT organisation scholar Judith Pringle talking about pay equity, and many others. Our Faculty was represented by Nicola Gavey (Psychology) talking about sexual coercion/violence and high profile ‘panic’ cases, and Nicola Gaston (Physics) talking about why science is sexist (being called Nicola may have been a prerequisite to being invited from Science at UoA!).

However, this was not and academic event, or indeed dominated by academics. The organisers had done a fantastic job of mixing speakers from a wide range of backgrounds, including national and international organisations (Māori Women’s Welfare League; National Council of Women; UN Women), NGOs (Women’s Health Action), and professions (e.g., journalist Paula Penfold) and experiences (e.g., Louise Nicholas).

It’s hard to pick highlights in what was a feast of conversations, but two very different angles grabbed me: the indomitable “sexual health pioneer” Dame Margaret Sparrow, talking about the importance of reproductive autonomy and agency for women – a personal and professional reflection on this ongoing ‘battle’; comedian and author Michelle A’Court – because humour has always been, and always will be, part of the fight for gender equality.

I left the convention feeling somewhat depressed and challenged… the experiences and analyses presented reveal that in terms of gender quality, as the more things change, the more they do indeed seem to stay the same. But at the same time, I felt the convention feeling invigorated – the sense of passion, the evidence of multi-level engagement, and across all sorts of sectors, highlighted the passionate work towards gender equality currently being undertaken.

A disappointment for me – noted by some of the speakers – was a lack of diversity in the audience at the convention – casual observation (though of course casual observation is often flawed, as we know!) suggests that the audience was overwhelmingly older, overwhelmingly Pākehā, and overwhelmingly female (and probably cisgendered)… Despite an amazingly free registration, Wanaka is not inexpensive to get to for those who aren’t local(ish), which may have contributed to the makeup of the participants. Any venue and location opens doors for some people, and closes them for others. But it also raised for me the history of (western) feminist movements, and the critiques of the dominance of white, and often middle-class, perspectives within these.

Talks were recorded and should be online soon, so keep checking in on their website.